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Minggu, 26 Mei 2013

Characteristics of Pteridophyta

Characteristics of Pteridophyta
Pteridophyta is predicted as an oldest Cormophyta. Cormophyta is plant having real roots, stems, and leaves. Its means that the roots, stems, and leaves have vascular bundle, so Pteridophyta also known as Tracheophyta. Fossil of Pteridophyta found in the stone since carbon era past of 345 millions ago.



Pteridophyta lives in water (hydrophyte), in moist area (hygrophyte), sticking in other plant (ephiphyte), or living in residue/ waste of other plant (saprophyte). Pteridophyta is not produce seeds but it produces spores. Spores are produced by leaves, usually in under surface of leaves. The young leaves are roll up. Stems of Pteridophyta located under of soil called rhizome. From rhizome will grow the roots like a hair called fibrous roots and also grow leaves stalk. There are any stems of Pteridophyta that grow up upper of soil, for example is Plant-fern (Cyathea sp.).




Leaves of Pteridophyta divided into two parts, they are leaves stalk and leaves sheet. There are simple leaves sheet and complex leave sheet. In certain Pteridophyta, the sizes of leaves are different. Pteridophyta have little leaves (microphyl) and large leaves (macrophyl). Leaves of Pteridophyta that especially to produce spores called sporophyl and the leaves do not produce spores called trophophyl. The function of tropophyl is only to photosynthesis. Spores that produced by Pteridophyta located in spores box (sporangium). Groups of sporangium are containing in sorus that grouping in under of leaves. Sorus is protected by membrane called inducium.


Roots, stems, and leaves of Pteridophyta have vascular bundle; xylem and phloem. Function of xylem to transport water and minerals from soil to the leaves while phloem is to transport photosynthesis product from the leaves to the all of plant body. Usually vascular bundle is arranged concentric, it means xylem in center and it’s rounded by phloem.

 

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